Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation. Language, 50(4), 696. https://doi.org/10.2307/412243
A very small selection of more studies:
Couper-Kuhlen, E. (2012). Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations. Discourse Processes, 49(3–4), 273–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2012.664111
Goodwin, C. (1980). Restarts, Pauses, and the Achievement of a State of Mutual Gaze at Turn-Beginning. Sociological Inquiry, 50(3–4), 272–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1980.tb00023.x
Keevallik, L. (2014). Turn organization and bodily-vocal demonstrations. Journal of Pragmatics, 65, 103–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.01.008
Laakso, M., & Sorjonen, M.-L. (2010). Cut-off or particle—Devices for initiating self-repair in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 42(4), 1151–1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.09.004
Lerner, G. H. (2002). Turn-sharing: The choral co-production of talk-in-interaction. In C. E. Ford, B. A. Fox, & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), The Language of Turn and Sequence (pp. 225–256). Oxford University Press.
Mazeland, H. (2007). Parenthetical sequences. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(10), 1816–1869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.05.005
Mondada, L. (2007). Multimodal resources for turn-taking: Pointing and the emergence of possible next speakers. Discourse Studies, 9(2), 194–225. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445607075346
Szczepek Reed, B., & Raymond, G. (Eds.). (2013). Units of talk-Units of action. John Benjamins.
Selting, M. (2001). Fragments of units as deviant cases of unit production in conversational talk. In M. Selting & E. Couper-Kuhlen (Eds.), Studies in Interactional Linguistics (pp. 229–258). John Benjamins Publishing.
And for more on derisive laughter in debates:
Demasi, M. A., & Tileagă, C. (2019). Rhetoric of derisive laughter in political debates on the EU. Qualitative Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/qup0000156